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Products of this store will be shipped directly from the UK to your country. The scorners took a different view. Since it is the practice among entertainers, why should I hold back? I will go and present myself! Entertainers of that type should wait for a summons—they simply do not take it upon themselves to appear! Send her away! Moreover, the girl still is young and just has happened to hit on this idea; it would be a shame to dismiss her so coldly.
I, for one, would be greatly distressed. Because we are devotees of the same art, I cannot help feeling sympathy for her. Even if you do not let her dance 17 18 book one or listen to her singing, at least admit her into your presence before you send her away. That would be the kind thing to do. Bend your principles a bit and call her in. Having been rudely dismissed, Lady Hotoke was about to get into her carriage and leave, but at the summons she returned and presented herself. And since you are here, I suppose I should find out what sort of voice you have. On turtle-shape isles of your pond, how many the cranes that flock there!
Kiyomori was obviously much impressed. Call in the musicians! Everything about her was captivating, from her hairdo and costume to her appearance as a whole, and her voice was pleasing and artfully employed, so her dancing could not fail to make an impression. I beg to be excused as soon as possible so that I may be on my way. Pines, turtles, and cranes are symbols of longevity. If now, after all her kindness, she were dismissed and I were to remain behind, think how dreadful I would feel! If by chance you happen to remember me, perhaps you might summon me again at some future time.
But for today I beg to take my leave. Even those who have only sought shelter under the same tree for a night or have merely dipped water from the same stream will feel sorrow on parting. Her tears, futile though they were, fell quickly. Since there was nothing she could do, however, she prepared to depart. But perhaps wanting to leave behind some reminder of herself, she inscribed the following poem on the sliding panel of the room, weeping as she did so: Those that put out new shoots, those that wither are the same, grasses of the field—come autumn, is there one that will not fade? Getting into her carriage, she returned to her home and there, sinking down within the panels of the room, began weeping.
What is wrong? It was only when they questioned the maid who had accompanied her that they learned the truth. Among 7. The letters she refused to accept; the messengers she sent off without a meeting. Such gestures served only to deepen her mood of melancholy, and she passed all her time weeping. In this way the year came to an end. Kiyomori tried again. I have ways of dealing with the matter! He says that if I do not respond, he has ways of dealing with the matter.
Does this mean I will be banished from the capital? Or that I will be put to death? Even if I were expelled from the capital, I would have no great regrets. And if he wants to deprive me of my life, what of that? He once sent me away a despised person—I have no heart to face him again. But the mother continued begging. The ties that bind man and woman are decreed from a past existence—they do not originate in this life alone. Those who vow to be faithful for a thousand or ten thousand years often end by parting, whereas those who think of this as merely an affair of the moment find themselves spending their whole lives together.
That was a stroke of fortune hardly to be matched. Now if you refuse to answer his summons, it is scarcely likely you will be put to death. And even if you are banished, you and your sister are young and can manage to live even in the wildest and most out-of-the-way spot. But what about your mother? I am a feeble old woman—suppose I am banished too? Just the thought of living in some strange place in the countryside fills me with despair. Let me live out the rest of my days here in the capital. Think of it as being filial in this world and the next.
But her heart was filled with foreboding. And now I find that even the seat I had occupied has been demoted! This is too heartless! What am I to do? Moved to pity by the sight, Lady Hotoke appealed to Kiyomori.
But surely she should be seated here with us. If not, I beg your permission to go where she is. All alike endowed with the buddha nature, how sad this gulf that divides us! All the members of the Taira clan who were present, from the ministers of state, lords, and high-ranking courtiers down to the lowly samurai, were moved to tears. Kiyomori himself listened with keen interest.
Saddened by the experience and mindful that as long as she remained in this world similar sorrows likely awaited her, she turned her thoughts to suicide. But now, if you do away with yourself, your sister will follow your example, and if I lose both my daughters, then old and feeble as I am, I would do better to commit suicide myself rather than live alone.
But by inducing a parent to carry out such an act before the destined time for death has come, you will be committing one of the five deadly sins. We are mere sojourners in this life and must suffer one humiliation after another, but these are nothing compared with the long night of suffering that may await us hereafter. Whatever this life may entail, think how frightful it would be if 23 24 book one you should condemn yourself to rebirth in one of the evil paths of existence!
I would be guilty of one of the Five Deadly Sins. But as long as I remain in the capital, I am likely to encounter further grief. My thought now is simply to leave the capital. And so spring and the heat of summer passed, and as the autumn winds began to blow, the time came for the two star lovers to meet, the Herd Boy poling his boat across the River of Heaven, and people gazed up into the sky and wrote down their requests to them on leaves of the paper mulberry. Giving themselves up to melancholy thoughts of this kind, their tears never ceased flowing. Saga is an area to the immediate west of the capital.
The lovers, two stars known as the Herd Boy and the Weaving Maiden, are permitted to meet on only one night a year, when the Herd Boy crosses the River of Heaven, or the Milky Way, in his boat. Another version of the legend has him crossing over a bridge formed by sympathetic magpies. This occasion, known as Tanabata, takes place on the seventh night of the seventh lunar month, at which time celebrants write their wishes on leaves and dedicate them to the lovers.
But just then they heard someone tap-tapping at the bamboo door. The nuns started up in alarm. Who would come so late at night? Whoever it is can easily batter down the door without waiting for it to be opened, so we may as well open it. He is certain to heed our call and come with his sacred host to greet us. And then surely he will guide us to his Western Paradise. Come, let us take heart and not delay pronouncing his name! Am I dreaming or awake? We women are frail beings and cannot always do as we wish. I could take no delight in it because I knew that sooner or later my turn would come to fall from favor.
But when I heard that you and your mother and sister all had entered religious life, I was overcome with envy. Again and again I asked the prime minister to release me from service, but he would not hear of it. It is a rare thing to be born a human being and rarer still to discover the teachings of the Buddha. If because of my actions now I were to be reborn in hell or to spend endless aeons transmigrating through the other realms of existence, when would I ever find salvation?
My youth could not be counted on, that I knew, for neither young nor old can tell when death may overtake them. One may breathe one instant and then not live to breathe the next: life is as fleeting as the shimmering heat of summer or a flash of lightning. If you say you can forgive me, I would like to join you in your devotions, and perhaps we may be reborn on a single lotus leaf in the Western Paradise.
But if you cannot bring yourself to forgive me, I will make my way elsewhere. In a world of sadness, we all are, no doubt, fated to endure such trials. And yet I could not help envying you, and it seemed that such feelings of envy would prevent me from ever achieving the salvation I yearned for. I was in a mean and merely half-resolved frame of mind, one suitable for neither this life nor the life to come. Hereafter, all my joy will be to strive for that longcherished goal. The whole world was puzzled when my mother and sister and I became nuns, deeming it an unprecedented step, and we too wondered in a way, and yet we had good reasons for doing what we did.
But what we did was nothing compared with what you have done! Barely turned seventeen, with neither hatred nor despair to spur you on, you have chosen to cast aside the world of defilement and turn all your thoughts toward the Pure Land. How fortunate we are to meet such a fine guide and teacher! Come, we will work toward our goal together! And sooner or later, it is said, each of the four nuns attained what she had so long sought, rebirth in the Western Paradise.
The stability in the capital gradually breaks down. Disagreements erupt within the imperial family as well as among temple-shrine complexes. In addition, tensions between Kiyomori, head of the now ascendant Taira clan, and the imperial court, led by the retired emperor GoShirakawa, peak in the Shishi-no-tani incident, in which Narichika, a Fujiwara courtier favored by GoShirakawa, becomes the principal conspirator in a plot to eliminate Kiyomori.
A conflict breaks out between the court and Mount Hiei, a key Buddhist center, over a delayed court decision in which the warrior monks of Mount Hiei are routed. In a great conflagration consumes much of Kyoto and its cultural treasures.
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K iyomori Taira : Taira clan head. Yasuyori Taira : minor member of the Taira clan and Shishi-no-tani conspirator. The head abbot of Mount Hiei has been exiled by the court as punishment for the attack by the warrior monks. The monks are outraged at this unprecedented action and retaliate by recapturing their abbot on his way to his place of banishment. There is a rumor that Retired Emperor GoShirakawa is gathering troops to punish the temple center, but one of the lesser conspirators in the Shishi-no-tani plot mistakenly believes that the troops are moving against the Taira and reveals the plot to Kiyomori.
After Shigemori and Norimori intervene, Kiyomori agrees to the lesser punishment of banishment for the others. Wearing a black-laced stomach guard with a tight-fitting silver-trimmed breastplate over a battle robe of red brocade, he carried under his arm a short halberd with a silver snake-coil handle, a weapon he kept constantly by his side even when he slept.
As Kiyomori entered the corridor leading to the middle gate of his mansion, his face bore a darkly forbidding expression. He sent for Sadayoshi, the governor of Chikugo, who presently appeared, wearing a suit of armor with crimson lacing over a dark orange battle robe, and made his obeisance. Whatever others may have told him, he should have remained faithful to the members of our family at least to the seventh generation! That was a terrible thing for him to do! In the future, if people should choose to speak slanderously of us, I suppose he will issue an edict calling for the destruction of our house.
What do you think of that? If I do that, the Northern Warriors, his personal guards, will probably shoot some arrows this way. You can pass the word along to our samurai to be prepared. I have finished performing services for the retired emperor! Saddle my horse and get out my full suit of armor! The prime minister says he is going to have the retired emperor placed in confinement in the Toba Palace, though I think his real intention is to banish him to Chinzei in Kyushu.
And yet when he visited him this morning, Kiyomori had indeed seemed as though he might be capable of some such madness. Reaching the gate and getting out of his carriage, Shigemori entered to find his father attired in body armor. Several dozen high officials and courtiers of the Taira clan, all wearing various colored battle robes and dressed in different types of armor, were seated in two rows along the corridors leading to the middle gate.
In addition, provincial officials, police officers, and other types of government officials overflowed the verandas and stood crowded together in the courtyard. Shigemori seemed strangely out of place as he entered the hall wearing a cap, an informal robe, and loose, large-pattern trousers, the last making a soft rustling sound as he walked. Kiyomori waited with eyes lowered. But the metal breastplate of the armor still showed a little 1. The Five Precepts are against killing, stealing, lasciviousness, lying, and drinking alcohol. The Five Standards are benevolence, righteousness, decorum, wisdom, and sincerity.
Shigemori sat down in the seat above that occupied by his younger brother, Munemori. Kiyomori said nothing, and Shigemori likewise sat in silence. The whole thing was concocted by the retired emperor. Until the situation quiets down, I have decided to have the retired emperor moved to the Northern Palace at Toba or else bring him here.
What would you say to such a move? This land of ours may be no bigger than a millet seed, a far-off border region. Yet ever since it has been ruled by descendants of the Sun Goddess Amaterasu3 and the heirs of the august Amanokoyane4 have aided them in ordering the state, donning armor has been deemed a violation of the code of decorum for one who has risen to the office of prime minister, has it not? And since you have taken clerical vows, how much worse this is in your case!
To put aside your holy robes, symbols of the emancipation bestowed by the Buddhas of the past, present, and future, and to abruptly put on military dress and take up bow and arrow is not only to violate the Buddhist precepts and invite the punishment for an odious sin. It is likewise to turn against the Confucian virtues of benevolence, righteousness, decorum, wisdom, and sincerity. I am grieved to have to speak in this forthright manner, but I cannot hold back the feelings that are in my heart!
Amaterasu is the tutelary deity of the imperial family.
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Amanokoyane is the tutelary deity of the Fujiwara clan, the most powerful aristocratic family for much of the Heian period. You have risen to the position of prime minister, a height never so much as glimpsed by our forebears. And I, Shigemori, ignorant and untalented as all know me to be, have nevertheless attained the rank of palace minister. The debt we owe the throne for such favors is truly extraordinary, is it not?
If now, forgetting this vast debt we have incurred, we should even consider placing the retired emperor in confinement, a most culpable act, would we not be going against the divine will of the Sun Goddess Amaterasu and the bodhisattva Hachiman? It is quite true that for generations our family has tried to conquer enemies of the court and to calm any waves of unrest that arise in the area within the four seas. And in doing so we have displayed unparalleled loyalty to the throne.
And yet to become overly puffed up by the praise we have received would mark us as lacking sensitivity to others. Their right is our wrong, and our right is their wrong. How can any one lay down a rule by which to distinguish right from wrong? For we are all, one with another, wise and foolish, like a ring that has no end. Therefore, although others give way to anger, let us, on the contrary, dread our own faults.
This is an allusion to the Book of Songs Shijing , the oldest collection of poetry in China and one of the Confucian classics. Hachiman, who was worshiped as both a Japanese god kami and a bodhisattva, was the tutelary deity of warriors. His Seventeen-Article Constitution, which consists of injunctions for good government based on Confucian and Buddhist principles, was written in And Lord Narichika, who was in consultation with the retired emperor, has already been taken into custody. Therefore, even if the retired emperor had had some questionable aim in mind, there now is no longer anything to fear.
When crimes have been committed, you should see that appropriate punishment is handed out. Other than that, you need only keep the throne informed of the state of affairs. Strive to be even more loyal and circumspect in your service of the retired emperor; seek in your exercise of government to show even more compassion for the common people. And when the gods and buddhas bestow their blessings and approval, the retired emperor will have to amend his thinking. Sovereign or subject—which has first claim on our allegiance?
There can be no dispute, just as when choosing between reason and error, we cannot do other than follow reason. Ever since I was first promoted to the fifth rank at court until I reached my current position of palace minister and commander in chief, every step in my advancement has been due to the kindness of the retired emperor. The debt I owe him is heavier than a thousand, ten thousand jewels, deeper than oncedyed or twice-dyed crimson. So I must go and shut myself up where he is. But what dire and unforeseen events may follow thereafter!
According to Buddhist mythology, Mount Sumeru, which rises in the center of this universe, is the highest mountain in the world. Forward or backward, my way is blocked! Right or wrong— how am I to judge? Come, then—behead me at once! And all his clansmen, the callous along with the tenderhearted, wet the sleeves of their armor with tears. After being addressed in this manner by the son in whom he put such trust, Kiyomori spoke in a much subdued tone.
I merely feared that some misunderstanding might arise if evil-minded men should get the ear of the retired emperor. As he did so, he addressed the samurai there. I came here this morning in hopes of preventing any such action, but there was such a commotion that I returned to my own home. If you still intend to move against the retired emperor, then do so only after you have seen my head fall! Those in my party, let us be off! Narichika, whom the monks of Mount Hiei had cursed because of an incident involving one of his subordinates, is taken away to a miserable island off the coast of Bizen.
They were built to the immediate east of the capital and had strong ties to various retired emperors until the thirteenth century. The island is situated very far from the capital and can be reached only by a wearisome journey over the waves. In ordinary times no ships call there, and its inhabitants are few. A certain number of natives live there, but they scarcely resemble the people of our country, as they are as dark in color as oxen. They have hair all over their bodies and do not understand the words spoken to them.
The men wear no caps; the women do not let their hair hang down; and since neither have regular clothing, they hardly seem like human beings. Because nothing edible grows on the island, the people must depend first of all on what they can get by hunting and fishing. No farmers till the fields, and so rice and other grains are unknown; there are no groves of mulberry for feeding silkworms, hence no cloth is to be had. In the middle of the island stands a tall mountain that continually sends forth flames.
The area around it is rich in sulfur, and for this reason the island is often called Sulfur Island. Thunder constantly rumbles up and down the mountainside, and rain falls in torrents on the foothills. In such a place, one could hardly hope to survive for even a day or an hour. Although Narichika takes the tonsure, he is executed without ever being able to see his son Naritsune again. He has a final communication with his wife, who then becomes a nun to pray for him.
The story of how Fujiwara Sanesada rose by praying at the shrine of the Taira tutelary deity at Itsukushima is held up in contrast to the fates of Narichika and the other conspirators.
The Tales of the Heike (Translations from the Asian Classics) - PDF Free Download
Nevertheless, because the Taira minister Norimori, father-in-law of the Tanba lesser captain Naritsune, continued to send supplies of food and clothing from one of his properties, the estate of Kase in Hizen Province, both Shunkan and Yasuyori, as well as Naritsune, managed to stay alive. He had long desired to take such a step, as he indicated in this poem: A world only to be renounced in the end— how hateful, that I did not cast it aside sooner! In the past, the Tanba lesser captain Naritsune and the newly ordained priest Yasuyori had been devotees of the Kumano Shrine.
But the other two, of one heart in their faith, began searching here and there around the island in hopes of finding a place that resembled the Kumano area.
They found a wonderful spot of woodland and water, festooned here and there with tree leaves the color of crimson brocade or embroidery; of splendid cloud-topped peaks, seeming as though draped in various shades of blue green gauze; with the mountain scenery, the stands of trees far surpassing anything found elsewhere.
Gazing south one could see a vast expanse of ocean, its waves deeply shrouded in clouds and mist, while to the north, from the soaring mountain crags, a hundred-foot waterfall came cascading down. The awesome thundering of its waters and the pine winds imparting an aura of holiness made it seem like the mountain waterfall of Nachi, the seat of one of the Kumano deities. They decided at once to call this place the mountain shrine of Nachi. Permit us once more to go back to our old homes and see our wives and children again!
These ritual activities were carried out in the customary manner. But the retired emperor had not yet gotten over his anger at the fact that the preceding summer the senior counselor Narichika and many other of his intimates had been executed or sent into exile. He took little interest in government affairs and appeared to be in a disgruntled mood. As 38 book three for Prime Minister Kiyomori, ever since Yukitsuna1 had informed him of the plot against him, he had viewed the retired emperor with great suspicion. Although on the surface his relations with the retired emperor remained unchanged, behind the forced smiles lurked an attitude of deep distrust.
On the seventh day of the First Month a comet appeared in the eastern sky. Sutra recitations for her recovery were initiated at various temples, and government officials were dispatched to present offerings at shrines here and there. The physicians brought out all their medicines; the yin-yang diviners plied their skills; and every sort of exoteric and esoteric Buddhist ritual was performed. Then it became known that this was no ordinary illness but that in fact the consort was pregnant.
Emperor Takakura was eighteen at the time and the consort was twenty-two, but until now they had not been blessed with either son or daughter. How splendid if a prince should be born! But I cannot help feeling that a general pardon at this point would be the most effective. If the men who have been exiled to Kikai-ga-shima were recalled, the blessings and benefits would surely be greater than those that could be achieved by any other means. Yukitsuna is a minor character who was party to the Shishi-no-tani plot. Chi You was a rebellious warrior of ancient China. Comets, particularly of this type, were regarded as evil portents.
And if you hope to placate his angry spirit, then above all you should recall his son Naritsune from exile while the latter is still alive. Once these doubts and pleadings of others are appeased, our own affairs will go smoothly. By granting their wishes, we will ensure the swift fulfillment of our own wishes; the consort will give birth to a male child, as we all hope she will; and our family will enjoy even greater glory than in the past! To leave any one of them behind would surely invite blame. And yet he turns around and uses his own Shishi-no-tani villa as a base of operations, seizing every chance he can to plot his nefarious schemes.
I could never think of pardoning Shunkan! You need have no more worry on that score. It was a heartrending sight! I will do all I can for you when I speak to my father. So at last it was decided that the exiles in Kikai-ga-shima should be recalled, and Kiyomori issued a letter of pardon and dispatched it by messenger from the capital. Norimori was so overjoyed that he sent a private messenger of his own to accompany the official envoy on his way. They had orders to proceed as rapidly as possible, traveling day and night. But the sea-lanes were not always favorable to their progress, and they had to battle adverse winds and waves.
Thus although they left the capital in the last third of the Seventh Month, they did not arrive at Kikai-ga-shima until around the twentieth of the Ninth Month. As he and his men stepped ashore from the boat, they began inquiring here and there. Or is this the Devil of the Sixth Heaven3 come to play tricks on my mind? My name is Shunkan and I was exiled from the capital! Prepare to return to the capital with all possible speed. He thought that perhaps his name was on the outside cover of the document, but he could not find it there.
He read the letter over from beginning to end, from end to beginning, but he could find only two names, no trace of a third. After a while, Naritsune and Yasuyori appeared. But whether Naritsune read the letter of pardon or Yasuyori read it, they could find only two names, never three.
Perhaps the whole thing is a dream, they thought, and yet it seemed real. Surely it must be real—yet it was still like a dream. Moreover, although the messenger brought 3. According to Buddhist cosmology, the Devil of the Sixth Heaven is the lord of the highest of the Six Realms of Desire and, together with his followers, keeps people from adhering to Buddhism.
Have all the people I know somehow vanished from the capital? Have the Heike suffered some lapse of memory? Or did the scribe who wrote the letter make a mistake? What is the meaning of this? While you two were here, just as the swallows come in spring and the wild geese visit the paddy fields in autumn, so from time to time I received word of what was happening in the capital. But now if you leave me, how can I ever hope for such news? And happy as I am that we two have been recalled to the capital, I hardly have the heart to make the journey when I see you in this distraught condition.
But the envoy has said that it is impossible to take you with us. I will see what sort of mood the prime minister is in and then send someone to fetch you. Meanwhile, you must wait here patiently as you have in the past. The important thing is to look after your health. A bustle of activity signaled that the boat was about to depart, whereupon Shunkan began frantically scrambling aboard, only to be put off, and having been put off, scrambling aboard once more, determined to be taken along.
But he was left behind with the bed 41 42 book three quilt that Naritsune had given him as a parting gift and a memento from Priest Yasuyori, a copy of the Lotus Sutra. When the hawser was untied and the boat started to pull away from the shore, Shunkan seized hold of the hawser, clinging to it until he had been dragged into water up to his waist, up to his armpits, up to the point where he could barely stand.
Do you really mean to go off and leave me? I never thought you could be so cruel! Where is the kindness you once showed me? Just take me along, wrong as it may be! Take me at least as far as Kyushu! At a loss to know what else to do, Shunkan returned to the shore and, flinging himself down, began beating his legs on the ground in the sort of tantrum small children indulge in when their nurse or mother has gone off and left them. Take me with you! But the boat merely rowed away from the shore, leaving behind its customary trail of white waves.
Although it had not yet gone far into the distance, Shunkan could no longer see it through the confusion of his tears.
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Rushing to a nearby hilltop, he waved to the boat in the offing. Even after the boat had disappeared from sight and evening had fallen, Shunkan did not return to his humble dwelling, but with the salt of the waves still on his legs and the night dews wetting him, he remained where he was until dawn. Nonetheless, he thought to himself, Naritsune is a man of great kindness, and he will surely take steps to rescue me! Leaning heavily on this hope, he put aside for the moment all thought of drowning himself, fragile though such hopes might be.
Abandoned by their stepmother to starve to death on an island when their father was absent, the two were later reborn as the bodhisattvas Kannon and Seishi. The rites have an effect, and the empress gives birth to a son. But blunders and improprieties mar the rituals and celebrations following the birth. The third, Bishop Shunkan, was left to be sole guardian of the dismal island, a bitter fate indeed. But there did not appear to be any possibility of a pardon for Shunkan. I must somehow make my way to the island and see for myself how he is faring.
I wonder whether you would write a letter that I can take with me. A ship was leaving for China around the Fourth or Fifth Month, but he felt he could not delay his departure until the beginning of summer. Instead, he left the capital around the end of the Third Month and, after enduring the numerous hardships of a sea voyage, arrived at the bay of Satsuma in Kyushu.
There the local people, suspicious of what he was up to, stripped him of his clothing, but he never for a moment regretted having made the trip. He boarded a merchant vessel that took him to the island. But even though he had heard vague stories about it when he was in the capital, he was utterly unprepared for what he found.
The island had no rice paddies, no vegetable fields, no villages, and no hamlets, and although a few persons were living there, he could barely understand a word they said. But white mists hid the path he had come by and the trail ahead was uncertain; winds in the dense foliage woke him from his dreams before he could catch so much as a dream glimpse of his master. Having found no trace of Shunkan in the mountains, he tried looking along the shore. But there, except for the gulls who left their footprints in the sand or the plovers flocking around the white sandbars in the offing, he could see no sign of life.
The person seemed at one time to have been a Buddhist priest, for his hair grew straight up as though the head had formerly been shaved. Various bits of seaweed clung to his head, looking like a veritable forest of growth. In one hand he held a piece of edible seaweed, in the other, a fish, and although he was trying to walk, he staggered from side to side and made little progress. The Buddha tells us that the asura5 demons live on the shores of the great sea and that beings in the Three Evil Paths6 and the Four Lower Realms of Existence7 dwell deep in the mountains or by the vast ocean.
Perhaps I have somehow stumbled on the realm where the hungry ghosts8 live! Day and night I have thought of nothing but those in the capital. Sometimes the faces of my loved ones come to me in dreams; at other times I think I see 5.
Asura are godlike beings who are constantly fighting. The lowest of the Ten Paths of Existence, the Three Evil Paths are the paths of beasts, hungry ghosts, and hell dwellers. The Four Lower Realms of Existence are the worlds of the asura, beasts, hungry ghosts, and hell dwellers. Hungry ghosts J. And since my body has become so weak and feeble, I can no longer tell dream from reality.